In one page
1. Describe how formative and summative evaluations would be used in your program that you are planning.
2. Describe ways you would use process, impact and outcome evaluation in your program.
Supporting definitions for formative, summative, process, impact, and outcome eval- uation are presented below.
- Formative evaluation: â€œAny combination of measurements obtained and judgments made before or during the implementation of materials, methods, activities or programs to control, assure or improve the quality of performance or deliveryâ€ (Green & Lewis, 1986, p. 362). Examples include, but are not limited to, pretesting, or pilot-testing a program. Data derived from formative evaluation help revise intervention components (content, methods, and materials) as well as instruments and data collection procedures (Windsor et al., 2004).
- Summative evaluation: â€œAny combination of measurements and judgments that permit conclusions to be drawn about impact, outcome, or benefits of a program or
- Process evaluation: â€œIs used to monitor and document program implementation and can aid in understanding the relationship between specific program elements and program outcomesâ€ (Saunders, Evans, & Joshi, 2005, p. 134). The central purposes for process evaluation are to â€œidentify the key components of an intervention that are effective, to identify for whom the intervention is effective, and to identify under what conditions the intervention is effectiveâ€ (Steckler & Linnan, 2002, p. 1). It also evaluates the â€œextent to which a program is being implemented as plannedâ€ (Harris, 2010, p.207).
- Impact evaluation: Focuses on â€œthe immediate observable effects of a program, lead- ing to the intended outcomes of a program; intermediate outcomesâ€ (Green & Lewis, 1986, p. 363). Measures of awareness, knowledge, attitudes, skills, and behaviors yield impact evaluation data. Most notably, impact evaluation is associated with behavioral impact or change (Windsor et al., 2004).
- Outcome evaluation: Focuses on â€œan ultimate goal or product of a program or treatment, generally measured in the health field by mortality or morbidity data in a population, vital measures, symptoms, signs, or physiological indicators on individu- alsâ€ (Green & Lewis, 1986, p. 364). Outcome evaluation is long-term in nature and generally takes more time and resources to conduct than impact evaluation. Ulti- mately, it makes a determination of the effect of a program or policy on its benefi- ciaries (Harris, 2010).