Instructions: Please put your answers to all of the examâ€™s 5 written questions into one file, and submit it by 11:59PM (one minute before midnight) on Wednesday, December 18, to the Turnitin link posted under Assignments on Blackboard. Please make sure to do your responses in order, and number them so that we know which question you are answering. Please do NOT include the text of the questions in the file you submit, only the question numbers of the questions as you answer them. Each of the 5 questions is worth up to 20 points, so the whole exam is worth 100 points total. Your response should be single-spaced and should require no more than 2 pages at maximum. You should need most of the 2 pages to write a good and sufficiently detailed response to each of the questions, but please do not exceed 2 pages total. You should not need to cite any sources other than the lectures, the Kernell text, the EPIC video and the Blackboard readings. Please do make sure to indicate when you are quoting from any source, whether from in the class resources or outside them, and make sure to provide full citations for any sources you use that are not included in the class syllabus. Usually, it is a bad idea to use any extracurricular sources because it is at the expense of the sources from class that you should be citing.
1. Please explain what is meant by â€œcracking and packingâ€ congressional districts for partisan gain.
2. What does Popkin tell us about the way that people use information from their lives to vote in campaigns? How does he argue that political party can provide similar information shortcuts?
3. Professor Ingram has argued in this class that conflicts over rules are really conflicts over outcomes. Please explain this statement and give an example.
4. What political tools and institutions were innovated in the campaigns for and against the End Poverty in California movement?
5. What did we learn from watching the development of presidential campaign spots that were shown on TV in the 1950s and 60s?