his1121 final

Note: I need 1000 words for this essay, and I have already chosen No.2 question.


Some reminders, and then your question options.

Monday, December 9: All Quizzes due before midnight

FINAL EXAM on Friday, December 6, 11:00am-1:00pm

And, now, your question options:

Citing specific examples, defend or refute one of the following statements:

1. The Mongol Invasions of the 13th Century CE positively impacted humanity.

2. History was made by civilizations in climate zones where agriculture was possible (e.g., Egypt, the Fertile Crescent, the Indo-Gangetic Plain, the Yellow and Yangtze River Valleys, etc.); marginal peoples from north or south of this zone contributed nothing to human history.

3. African history before the year 1000 CE is unknowable due to the bias of (first) Islamic and (then) Imperial European historians.


Answer the following question:

4. What is the most important non-human force in the making of history: trade, disease, philosophy, climate, religion, or something else? Why? (Pick one to defend, but make sure to discuss at least three).

Reminders–from the course syllabus:

Examinations may not be made up except in the case of verifiable emergency. If you do not show up for an exam, you must contact the instructor within 24 hours of the start of the exam, detailing your emergency and providing some form of documentation to prove the emergency is real. If you do not follow this rule, you will be marked absent for the exam, and will receive a “0” for that exam.

The format for each exam question will begin with the phrase: “Defend or Refute the Following Statement.” You will be given a choice of up to five prompts one week before the exam. It is expected that you will work on your essay during that week.

We will discuss strategies for how to write such an essay in class well before the first exam. Please note that the fact that I give you the exam question here a week before you have to take the exam means higher standards for good grades. An “A” essay will be well-organized, demonstrate a genuine understanding of the material, and will be written in proper.