Respond to both post below, commenting on the effectiveness with which your peer addressed each developmental stage, identifying the needs of elementary and secondary students.
Unit 8, DQ 1 – Career Counseling Across the Life Span
Historically, career counseling has been seen as a choice of occupation and the teaching of pre-vocational skills that would prepare one for a lifelong job and economic health (Herr, 1989). Until recently, career counseling from a psychological point of view did not include the understanding of how the ever-changing world with globalization an rapid development has shaped individuals mental health. According to Eryilmaz & Mutal (2017), understanding the life span multidisciplinary approach to human development and taking into account the contextual factors from birth to death, can greatly influence one’s mental health. According to research, the changes and development one makes through interpersonal relationships, business relationship and school relationships shape the lives of the individual overall perception and development.
Furthering this understanding Eryilmaz & Mutal (2017), state because of negative developmental processes some individuals can’t adversely be affected in regard to their mental health causing problems in their lives such as the inability to achieve a successful identity, or possible difficulties in regulating their emotions. In turn, finding it difficult for them to find success in their careers. For example, if an individual has problems regulating their emotions, they may show signs of anxiety and have an inability to adapt to a fast-paced work environment. Therefore, understanding how mental health counseling can assist in helping individuals overcome negative mental health issues, in turn can help them be successful on the job and in their personal lives.
According to Zunker (2016), Career counseling and development is to be considered a lifelong process that requires cooperation from educational administrators, teachers, counselors, parents and even community programs and volunteers. Starting as early as pre-kindergarten, but clearly seen in the programs in elementary school where the curriculum and programs are strategically and carefully planned. This leaving school counselors facilitating multiple roles in order to provide the high standards Outlined in the policies by the National Career Developmental Association and the (Zunker, 2016). It is within these programs that students will learn to solve problems, think rationally and gain the knowledge needed for them to build a solid foundation on which their career goals can be built upon.
According to Zunker (2016), Elementary age children learn through their accomplishments, events and sociological changes as they veer from one stage of development to another. However, during adolescence, middle school age children can form problem solving skills that are systematic and new in how they are accomplished (Zunker, 2016). Within this understanding it is important for counselors to provide children in adults but the tools necessary to maintain positive development. One of the models used by school counselors can be found in Piagetâ€™s theory of cognitive development. According to Zunker (2016), early on children develop through their senses and motor activities, but have not yet developed a concrete understanding, or an ability to think logically or abstractly. It is later that children will begin to develop a clearer understanding through memory unrehearsed ideas that will develop with the help of their teachers, counselors, parents, and even peers (Zunker, 2016).
Career counseling over the life span
Career development is viewed as a continuous process that continuous across the lifespan. Counseling can be affected by the changing cultural and environment systems (Zunker,2016). Clients lives are changing continuous and their career interests, goals, and preferences changes as they become involved in the workforce, therefore; career counseling can be observed from a continuous dynamic and lifelong process.
Mental health counselors are expected to understand every aspect of a clientâ€™s emotional being that effects their mental health career counseling is not an exception (Zunker, 2016). Mental health counselors need to be aware of clientâ€™s limitations within their career preparing to meet a clientâ€™s need in building social skills, industry , and communication skills. When working with adolescences counselor need to build relationships outside of their family and teach how these interpersonal skills will benefit them in the workplace. Mental health counselors should be competent of life stages when choosing assessment tools, conducting evaluations, and setting clients in jobs.
Career counseling can be integrated into work with children by focusing on different aspects of successful education, vocational, and social experiences. Some of the foundational skills that counselors can focus on with children include prosocial skills, positive work habits, diversity skills, pleasing personality traits, and entrepreneurship (Gysbers, 2013). Counseling with adolescents can focus on planning, goals setting, and decision-making skills, and a curriculum that directed towards a career. Newman and Newman (2012) defines career maturity which suggests that career decisions should not be discussed until the adolescent or young adult is mature enough to gain valuable life experience. Career counseling adults focus on career development than remaining at a certain company (Zunker, 2016). Retirement counseling can vary in each individual either by promoting changes from work to more leisure opportunities or from full-time work to part time work.
Erik Erikson career counseling is observed from a developmental stage that a client is currently in. Erikson stages of children age 6- 11 state that they are actively learning a variety of social, academic, and work related skills that set the stage for complex career development. This stage is also related to achievement of self-efficacy and importance of productivity. Adolescents are actively working on development task of achieving a group and individual identity and avoiding insolation. Adolescents work hard to become social butterflies and achieve independence from their parents (Newman & Newman, 2012). Children or adolescence who fail to achieve their development tasks may require support later in life (Zunker, 2016).
There are many other counseling models that would be appropriate for children and adolescents in career counseling such as : Superâ€™s self-concept theory, Krumboltzâ€™s learning theory, and cognitive development theory. Elementary school students are developing self-concept and identity through childhood relationships makes Superâ€™s self-concept theory a good selection (Zunker, 2016). Krumholtzâ€™s observation in learning new things and how they can adapt their behavior can be utilize for children and adolescents (Zunker, 2016). Piagetâ€™s cognitive development theory views childrenâ€™s knowledge acquisition as developing in specific steps through their environment engagement.